Each team consists of nine players, plus substitutes who may be introduced at any time when the ball is dead. In a Physical Education class you may need to increase the number of players per team depending on your situtation and the capability of your students.


Made up of four quarters of 25 minutes each, with breaks of 3 minutes between the first and second quarters, 15 minutes at halftime, and 5 minutes between the third and fourth quarters.The game should consist of an agreed number of innings. In a Physical Education class this doesn’t matter as long as both teams have an equal opportunity to bat. An innings is over when three batters have been dismissed.



  • The winning team is the one that scores the most number of runs after the last completed innings
  • A run is scored when a baserunner completes a circuit of the bases in order, touching each base


  • Players bat in a nominated order. If a player was next in line to bat when an innings was ended they shall be the first batter in the next innings.


  • The pitcher may deliver the ball from a Set Position or the Wind Up Position
  • SET POSITION – is when the pitcher stands facing the batter with the pivot foot on the pitchers plate and the other foot also on the plate, holding the ball in both hands in front of the body
  • WIND UP POSITION – is when the pitcher stands facing the batter with the pivot foot on the pitchers plate and the other foot free
  • If a pitcher balks, all baserunners are allowed to advance one base
  • A BAULK is an illegal pitch when runners are on the base and can be called for the following infingements (Foot not in contact with pitchers plate, pretending to pitch, not facing the batter, dropping the ball during the pitching motion, pitching when the catcher is not in position)
  • If the ball is pitched wildly or a thrown to a base and goes past that base, baserunners may advance one base

A strike is called when the batter:

  • does not swing at a ball pitched into the strike zone
  • swings at any pitch and misses
  • is hit by the ball when striking at it
  • is hit by the ball in the flight zone
  • hits a ball into the foul territory with less than two strikes recorded
  • hits a foul tip that is caught by the catcher

The strike zone is an area over home plate between the batter’s shoulders and knees in the normal batting stance


  • A Ball is called when the pitch goes outside the strike zone and is not swung at by the batter
  • After four ‘balls’ the batter may walk to first base


  • the ball is hit into fair territory
  • four Balls have been pitched
  • hit by a pitch provided they have tried to get out of the way
  • the catcher drops the third strike

Forced Play

If the ball is hit into fair territory and all proceeding bases are occupied, the runner is ‘forced’ to run towards the next base. In this instance the baserunner does not need to be tagged as the baseplayer has the option of catching the ball and contacting the base before the runner can contact the base.


A baserunner can attempt to steal except when a foul is hit. The baserunner is permitted to “lead-off” the base before the ball is pitched, but is out if he/she is tagged with the balls whilst off base


The batter is out if

  • a struck ball is caught on the fly
  • there are three strikes (and the third strike is caught on the full by the catcher)
  • the ball is bunted into foul territory on the third strike
  • a third strike is not caught by the catcher when first base is occupied before there are two out
  • he/she deliberately hits the ball twice
  • he/she hits a ball with one or two feet outside the batters box
  • he/she interferes with any fielder
  • struck by the ball when attempting to hit a third strike
  • he/she bats out of turn

The baserunner is out if

  • tagged with the ball whilst off a base
  • hit by a struck ball whilst baserunning before it has touched or passed an infielder
  • he/she runs more than 2 metres outside a direct line between bases
  • he/she interfers with a fielder
  • he/she overtakes a preceding runner